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The results reported herein represent the quantitative portion of a mixed method investigation that employed a non-equivalent control group design conducted to determine the effects of teaching methods on math anxiety and achievement among preservice elementary teachers enrolled in a mathematics course. Two teaching methods, inquiry-based learning (IBL) and direct instruction (DI), were compared. These results indicated that math anxiety decreased significantly for the IBL group while increasing for the DI group over the course of an academic semester. There was no difference in measured learning outcomes between the two groups. A significant negative correlation between math anxiety and student achievement, however, was found. Qualitative results, discussed in a companion article, contextualize these findings and reveal that the participants attributed varying levels of math anxiety to several factors including course content, teaching methods, assessments, and student behaviors.