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An Indonesian Translation and Adaptation of the POSTT: A Science Teacher Pedagogical Orientation, Formative Assessment Device

Listiani, William W. Cobern, & Brandy A. Pleasants

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Abstract: Indonesia has experienced problems in teacher quality, especially science teachers. Teacher-training programs in which preservice teachers are taught to use the most appropriate science teaching methods are critical in order to prepare qualified teachers. Having a formative way to assess and discuss preservice science teachers’ preferred teaching orientations is important. Therefore, the Pedagogy of Science Teaching Test (POSTT) was translated and adapted into Bahasa as a formative assessment for preservice science teachers. There were eight steps in the translation and validation of a selected set of POSTT items into Bahasa (Indonesian language) involving Indonesian language experts and science content experts. Pilot study data indicates that the transadapted items are both reliable and valid for use with Indonesian teachers, and that the transadapted POSTT items are understandable and adequately fit with Indonesian school culture. This being the case, science educators in other countries may also wish to employ transadapted POSTT items for preservice science teacher education purposes.

Keywords: Formative assessment; pedagogical orientations; preservice science teachers; transadaptation

Please Cite: Listiani, Cobern, W. W. & Pleasants, B. A. (2019). An Indonesian Translation and Adaptation of the POSTT: A Science Teacher Pedagogical Orientation, Formative Assessment Device. Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2(3), 135-149.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31756/jrsmte.231          

    

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Vol. 2 Iss. 3

Didactic proposal to overcome the difficulties in the learning of Area and Volume in Spanish Primary Education students

Ignacio Rieiro-Marín

Paloma Ocaña Aranda

Melody García-Moya

Raquel Fernández-Cézar

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Abstract: This work presents a didactic proposal for the learning and measure of surface area and body volume. This proposal is framed in the Anthropological Theory of the Didactic (ATD), based on the recognized errors in the learning of these magnitudes and considering their connection with the typified learning difficulties or epistemological obstacles. The proposal was developed as a didactic sequence, including the tasks from didactic situations (as considered by Brousseau) and with a cross-curricular perspective in relation to the social-systemic structure (ATD), without restricting them in any didactic unit. The praxeology was structured in accordance with the approaches of the ATD, and the didactic methodology was based on the definition of the errors, which followed the phases of development of the usual models in the learning of Geometry.  These phases were defined under a generic framework influenced by the developed Van Hiele model for the learning of Geometry. The tasks that composed the didactic sequences were created “ad-hoc” or extracted from adequate sources throughout the Spanish curriculum of Primary Education. The proposal was designed to be applied in the 5th Primary Education grade. The collection of evidences on the students learning regarding the area and the volume after the implementation of the proposal constitutes the natural next step of this project.

Keywords: Anthropological Theory of the Didactic,Theory of Didactic Situations; Errors;Learning difficulties; Area; Volume; Primary Education.

Please Cite: Rieiro-Marín, I., Ocaña Aranda, P. O., García-Moya, M., & Fernández-Cézar, R. (2019). Didactic proposal to overcome the difficulties in the learning of Area and Volume in Spanish Primary Education students. Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2(3), 151-178. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31756/jrsmte.232   

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Vol. 2 Iss. 3

Science Education under a Totalitarian Theocracy: Analyzing the ISIS Primary Curriculum

Patrice Potvin, Marianne Bissonnette, Chirine Chamsine, Marie-Hélène Bruyère, Mohamed Amine Mahhou, Olivier Arvisais, Patrick Charland, Stéphane Cyr, & Vivek Venkatesh

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Abstract: We conducted an unprecedented analysis of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) primary school science curriculum. The research question focuses on the general scientific quality of the five documents examined, the integration of religious content and the possible tensions between science and religion that result from including such material in the corpus. This content analysis also focuses on the ideological/political agenda that supports its content and structure. Conclusions argue that the ISIS science curriculum appears to be committed to an absolutist/theocratic ideological program that, among other things, promotes a very inadequate concept of scientific activity and content. Recommendations about secularization and the reconstruction of post-ISIS education systems are formulated.

Keywords: Curriculum; Science; Religion; ISIS.

Please Cite: Potvin, P., Bissonnette, M., Chamsine, C., Bruyère, M.-H., Mahhou, M. A., Arvisais, O., Charland, P., Cyr, S., & Venkatesh, V. (2019). Science Education under a Totalitarian Theocracy: Analyzing the ISIS Primary Curriculum. Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2(3), 179-200. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31756/jrsmte.233

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Vol. 2 Iss. 3

Women Missing in STEM Careers: A Critical Review through the Gender Lens

Shamnaz Arifin Mim

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Abstract: Although the number of female science students has increased at secondary level in many countries since 1990, this has not translated into pursuing a STEM education at tertiary level and not even into STEM jobs. It is thus important to analyze this issue of female participation in STEM disciplines, since their inclusion would empower them by improving the economy, health, and infrastructure worldwide and help to fight poverty internationally with technological and scientific interventions. This narrative review article aims to analyze the reasons behind female underrepresentation in STEM careers using the “feminist research methodological” approach. Underlying the conceptualization of gendering science, two specific concepts, gender role and empowerment, have been used. Here I have analyzed the educational, attitudinal, socio-cultural, and socio-economic aspects of why there are so few women in STEM careers. This analysis introduces some important concerns that can be focused on during policy implication to ensure gender equality in STEM careers.  This article highlights the socialization process of young students (especially girls), who are expected to perform their stereotyped gender roles consciously or subconsciously both in the family and educational settings. These gendered ideologies are clearly interlinked to the career they become interested or influenced in. The analysis reflects and recommends that subject domains and job sectors should be gender neutral where life experiences and interests of individuals should be emphasized. Such important concerns raised in this article would help educators in policy implication to ensure gender equality in STEM careers.

Keywords: Gender role, Science Careers, STEM, Girls’ empowerment

Please Cite: Mim, S. A. (2019). Women Missing in STEM Careers: A Critical Review through the Gender Lens. Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2(2), 59-70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31756/jrsmte.221           

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Vol. 2 Iss. 2

How Preservice Elementary Teachers Develop Their Personal Philosophies About Science Teaching: The Role of Informal Science Approaches

Angela Skayia, Lucy Avraamidou, &Maria Evagorou

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Abstract: The purpose of this case study was to explore how (if in any way) three informal science approaches as part of a teacher preparation program could shape preservice teachers’ personal philosophies of science teaching and learning. Data were collected in a period of two academic semesters in the context of an elementary methods course through the following sources: science autobiographies, personal philosophies about science teaching, drawings about their most memorable and least memorable experiences of science, three reflective journals about the three informal science experiences (i.e., working with scientists, field, science festival), lesson plans, responses to final exam questions, observations, and semi-structured interviews. The participants were 16 preservice elementary teachers, seven males and nine females. Open coding techniques were used to analyse the data in order to construct categories and subcategories and eventually to identify emerging themes. The outcomes of the analysis showed that the inclusion of informal learning in teachers’ preparation has the potential to support preservice teachers’ in reconstructing their ideas about science and science teaching in ways that are aligned with reform efforts emphasizing student engagement, working with scientists, and utilizing out-of-school spaces for learning.

Keywords: Informal science; Teacher education; Science education

Please Cite: Skayia A., Avraamidou, L., & Evagorou, M. (2019). How preservice teachers develop their personal philosophies about science teaching: The role of informal science approaches. Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2(2), 71-84.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31756/jrsmte.222               

References

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Anderson, D., Lucas, K.B., Ginnis, I.S. (2003). Theoretical Perspectives on Learning in an Informal Setting. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 40(2), 177-199.

Avraamidou, L. (2014). Developing a reform-minded science teaching identity: The role of informal science environments. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 25(7), 823-843.

Avraamidou, L. (2014). Reconceptualizing Elementary Teacher Preparation: A case for informal science education. International Journal of Science Education, 37(1), 108-135.

Avraamidou, L. (2015). Stories of self and science: preservice elementary teachers’ identity work through time and across contexts. Pedagogies: An international Journal, 11(1), 43-62.

Avraamidou, L. (2016). Intersections of life histories and science identities: the stories of three preservice elementary teachers. International Journal of Science Education, 38(5), 861-884.

Avraamidou, L. & Roth, W.-M. (2016). Intersections of formal and informal science. NY: Routledge.

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Murmann, M., Avraamidou, L. (2013). Animals, Emperors, Senses: Exploring a Story-based Learning Design in a Museum Setting. International Journal of Science Education, 4(1), 66-91.

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Vol. 2 Iss. 2

The Development and Validation of a 21st Century Skills Instrument: Measuring Secondary School Students’ Skills

Alpaslan Sahin, Mirim Kim, & Myeongsun Yoon

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Abstract: Due to the rapid change in technology and information dissemination, the qualities and skills employers and colleges demand in the 21st century have changed. To help higher education institutions and workforce to identify and measure their prospective students and employees’ skills respectively, we designed an instrument for secondary grade students to self-assess their 21st century skills. After successful piloting, validation of the final instrument was done with 282 high school students from a public high school in Texas. We utilized exploratory factor analysis and investigated construct validity for the instrument using principal axis factoring with Promax rotation and Kaiser normalization. We found that the original 48 items developed for the instrument were loading the four factors as theorized in our model. Finally, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models for four scales were separately investigated. Maximum likelihood estimation method was used for all analyses though Mplus8.2 (Muthén & Muthén, 1998-2017). We came up with 5 factors and 43 items. Researchers, K-12 educators, postsecondary educators, and employers may benefit from the development of this instrument.

Keywords: 21st century skills; Exploratory factor analysis; Instrument development; Principal axis factoring; Confirmatory factor analysis.

Please Cite: Sahin, A., Kim, M., & Yoon, M. (2019). The Development and Validation of a 21st Century Skills Instrument: Measuring Secondary School Students’ Skills. Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2(2), 85-103.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31756/jrsmte.223               

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Silva, E. (2008). Measuring skills for the 21st century (Education Sector Reports). Washington, DC: Education Sector.

Silva, E. (2009). Measuring skills for 21st-century learning. Phi Delta Kappan90(9), 630–634.

Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

Trilling, B. & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times. Retrieved from http://21stcenturyskillsbook.com/blog/q-a/

Voogt, J., & Roblin, N. P. (2012). A comparative analysis of international frameworks for 21st century competences: Implications for national curriculum policies. Journal of Curriculum Studies44(3), 299–321.
Vol. 2 Iss. 2

Indonesia Vocational High School Science Teachers’ Priorities Regarding 21st Century Learning Skills in Their Science Classrooms

Esty Haryani, William W. Cobern, & Brandy A-S. Pleasants

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Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine vocational high school science teachers’ instructional prioritizing the 21st Century Skills mandated in the Indonesian National Curriculum 2013 revision. The Indonesian government implemented this curriculum in 2017 to support students’ career readiness, which was inadequately addressed in previous curriculum documents. Survey data was obtained from the population of vocational high school science teachers in the city of Pontianak, West Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The study contrasted the prioritizing of 21st Century Skills objectives with previous curriculum objectives, in order to determine if teachers give priority to current curriculum requirements or are still focusing on previous requirements. The study furthermore examined whether teacher demographic data are associated with their teaching priorities. Results indicate teachers do prioritize the 21st Century Learning Skills over previous curriculum objectives. Novice teachers report higher priority on communication skills and male teachers give higher priority to problem solving. Future research includes determining how these priorities translate into classroom practice.

Keywords: 21st Century Learning Skills; Science content; Scientific process; Teaching priority; Quantitative study.

Please Cite: Haryani, E., Cobern, W. W. & Pleasants, B. A-S. (2019). Indonesia Vocational High School Science Teachers’ Priorities Regarding 21st Century Learning Skills in Their Science Classrooms. Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2(2), 105-133.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31756/jrsmte.224             

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Vol. 2 Iss. 2

STEM Education and Research in a Changing World: Our Social Responsibility

Lucy Avraamidou

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At the awaking of the third millennium, in the here and now, the world finds itself facing a series of challenges, such as climate change, poverty, inequality, refugee crisis, unemployment, and so on, and so on. These global challenges raise a number of questions for STEM education and research: What should we teach our children? What knowledge and skills will our children need to have in 2050? How can we utilize scientific and technological knowledge to address global challenges? How can we think beyond the here and now in order to prepare ourselves for the future societies? Essentially, two questions are raised for STEM researchers: (a) what is the role of STEM education and research in a constantly changing world? and, (b) How does STEM shape our societies and how are our societies shaped by STEM?

Vol. 2 Iss. 1

Reliability of ACCUPLACER Score in Predicting Success in Quantitative Reasoning Course

Santhosh Mathew, & Upasana Kashyap

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Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the ACCUPLACER placement test score (elementary algebra) and the student success in the quantitative reasoning course at Regis College. Our study points to a weak but significant correlation between the ACCUPLACER placement score and the student success in the quantitative reasoning course. We propose that an in-house placement system based on the unique requirements of the institution will be a much more effective approach to place the students at appropriate levels of instruction.

Keywords: ACCUPLACER; College Placement; Quantitative Reasoning; Freshmen Level Mathematics; Assessment of Student Preparedness

Please Cite: Mathew, S., & Kashyap, U. (2019). Reliability of ACCUPLACER score in predicting success in Quantitative Reasoning Course. Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2(1), 1-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31756/jrsmte.211             

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Bettinger, E. P., & Long, B. (2009). Addressing the needs of under-prepared students in Higher Education: Does college remediation work? Journal of Human Resources, 44(3), 736–771. 

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Mattern, K. D., & Packman, S. (2009). Predictive validity of ACCUPLACER scores for course placement: A meta-analysis (Research Report No. 2009-2). New York, NY: College Board. Retrieved from https://research.co.llegeboard.org/sites/default/files/publications/2012/7/researchreport-2009-2-predictive-validity-ACCUPLACER-scores-course-placement.pdf

Ngo, F., & Kwon, W. W. (2015). Using multiple measures to make math placement decisions: Implications for access and success in community colleges. Research in Higher Education, 56(5), 442-470.

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Scott-Clayton, J. (2012). Do high-stakes placement exams predict college success? (CCRC Working Paper No. 41). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

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Vol. 2 Iss. 1

Framework for the Parallelized Development of Estimation Tasks for Length, Area, Capacity, and Volume in Primary School – A Pilot Study

Dana Farina Weiher

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Abstract: The purpose of this study is to present a framework for the development of parallelized estimation tasks for the visible measures length, area, capacity, and volume. To investigate if there are differences between the estimation types of task, a written estimation test for 3rd- and 4th-graders was developed. It includes eight different types of task for each measure. The percentage deviation of the estimated value from the real value (the measured size) of 137 students indicates that there are differences between the four measures as well as within the types of task that affect over- and underestimation and the estimation accuracy. Further research could address relations between the estimation of visible measures and the investigation of more characteristics in an estimation task, using a written estimation test that is based on this valid framework.

Keywords: Estimation test; Estimation tasks; Measurement estimation; Parallelized items; Visible measures

Please Cite: Weiher, D. F. (2019). Framework for the Parallelized Development of Estimation Tasks for Length, Area, Capacity, and Volume in Primary School – A Pilot Study. Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2(1), 9-28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31756/jrsmte.212     

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Vol. 2 Iss. 1