All posts by: technovision

About technovision

An Indonesian Translation and Adaptation of the POSTT: A Science Teacher Pedagogical Orientation, Formative Assessment Device

Listiani, William W. Cobern, & Brandy A. Pleasants

Download: 199, size: 0, date: 06.Jan.2020

Abstract: Indonesia has experienced problems in teacher quality, especially science teachers. Teacher-training programs in which preservice teachers are taught to use the most appropriate science teaching methods are critical in order to prepare qualified teachers. Having a formative way to assess and discuss preservice science teachers’ preferred teaching orientations is important. Therefore, the Pedagogy of Science Teaching Test (POSTT) was translated and adapted into Bahasa as a formative assessment for preservice science teachers. There were eight steps in the translation and validation of a selected set of POSTT items into Bahasa (Indonesian language) involving Indonesian language experts and science content experts. Pilot study data indicates that the transadapted items are both reliable and valid for use with Indonesian teachers, and that the transadapted POSTT items are understandable and adequately fit with Indonesian school culture. This being the case, science educators in other countries may also wish to employ transadapted POSTT items for preservice science teacher education purposes.

Keywords: Formative assessment; pedagogical orientations; preservice science teachers; transadaptation

Please Cite: Listiani, Cobern, W. W. & Pleasants, B. A. (2019). An Indonesian Translation and Adaptation of the POSTT: A Science Teacher Pedagogical Orientation, Formative Assessment Device. Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2(3), 135-149.




Anggraeni, S., Aryani, A., Hamidiyanti, Y., Sanjaya, Y., & Hernawati. (2009). Sudahkan Calon Guru Biologi Menerapkan Hakekat Sains dalam Pembelajaran Biologi? [Have the Preservice Biology Teachers Implementing the Nature of Science in Teaching Biology?] in Kismiantini, D. Darmawan, E. Priyambodo, A. Wijaya, and S. Nurohman (Ed.), Proceedings of Seminar Nasional Penelitian, Pendidikan dan Penerapan MIPA (Vol. 4, B340-B348). Yogyakarta: Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta

Azhar (2011). Paradigma meningkatkan mutu pendidikan pada LPTK [Paradigm on improving education quality for teacher training institutions]. Jurnal Tabularasa PPS UNIMED, 8(1), 73-86.

Baxter, J. A., & Lederman, N. G. (1999). Assessment and measurement of pedagogical content knowledge. In J.Gess-Newsome and N.G. Lederman (Ed.), Examining pedagogical content knowledge (Vol VI, pp. 147-161). Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publisher

Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (2008). Assessment for learning formative assessment. In OECD (Ed.), Proceedings of OECD/CERI International Conference: Learning in the 21st century: Research, Innovation and policy. Paris: Organization for Economic co-operation and Development. Retrieved from

Caroline, K. & Wahyuni N.C. (2013, December 6). Back to school for education policy makers. The Jakarta Globe. Retrieved from

Cobern, W.W., Schuster, D., Adams, B., Skjold, B.A., Mugaloglu, E.Z., Bentz, A., & Sparks, K. (2014). Pedagogy of science teaching test: Formative assessments of science teaching orientations. International Journal of Science Education, pp. 1-24.

Cohen, Y., Gafni, N. & Hanani, P. (2007, September). Translating and adapting a test, yet another source of variance; the standard error of translation. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the IAEA. Baku, Azerbaijan. Retrieved from nu/series04/0417.pdf

Czerniak, C.M. & Schriver, M.L. (1994). An examination of preservice science teachers’ beliefs and behaviors as related to self-efficacy. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 5(3), 77-86.

Driel, J.H.V & Berry, A. (2010). Pedagogical content knowledge. In P. Peterson, E. Baker, M. McGaw (Eds.), International Encyclopaedia of Education (Third ed., pp. 656-661). Oxford: Elsevier.

Griethuijsen, R. A. L. F., Eijck, M. W., Haste, H., Brok, P. J., Skinner, N. C., Mansour, N., et al. (2014). Global patterns in students’ views of science and interest in science. Research in Science Education, 45(4), 581–603. doi: 10.1007/s11165-014-9438-6.

Taber, K.S. (2016). The Use of Cronbach’s Alpha When Developing and Reporting Research Instruments in Science Education. Research in Science Education, 46(6), 1273–1296. https://10.1007/s11165-016-9602-2

The Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (2008). The path to quality teaching in higher education. Paris, Perancis: Henard, F. & Leprince-Ringuet

Hightower, A.M., Delgado, R.C., Llyold, S.C., Wittenstein, R., Sellers, K., & Swanson, C.B. (2011). Improving student learning by supporting quality teaching: Key issues, effectiveness strategies. Bethesda, MD: Editorial Projects in Education

Human Service Research Institute (2005). Tolkit on translating and adapting instruments. Cambridge, MA: Chavez, L.M. & Canino, G.

Magnusson, S., Krajcik, J., & Borko, H. (1999). Nature, source, and development of pedagogical content knowledge for science teaching. In J. Gess-Newsome and N.G. Lederman (Ed.), Examining Pedagogical Content Knowledge (pp. 95-132). Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publisher

Meirina, Z. (2013, July 5). Kemdikbud akan tata keberadaan LPTK. ANTARA [Ministry of Education will manage the Teacher Training Institutions/LPTK]. Retrieved from

Montoya, A., Llopis, N., & Gilaberte, I. (2011). Validation of the translation of an instrument to measure reliability of written information on treatment choices: A study on attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Education for Health, Vol. 24(3), 577.

Morine-Deshimer, G. & Kent, T. (1999). The complex nature and sources of teachers’ pedagogical knowledge. In Julie Gess-Newsome & Norman G. Lederman, Examining pedagogical content knowledge. In Examining Pedagogical Content Knowledge (pp. 21-49). Springer Netherlands.

Muslim, Suhandi, A., & Karniawati, I. (2013). Pengembangan Model Pembelajaran Fisika Berorientasi Kemampuan Berargumen dan Pemahaman Konsep Calon Guru Fisika [Developing a Model for Teaching Physics with Argumentation and Conceptual Understanding of Physics Teacher Oriented], In A. Purqon, F.D.E. Latief, S. Viridi, S. Pramuditya, and D. Enan (Ed.), Proceedings of SNIPS 2013: Simposium Nasional Inovasi dan Pembelajaran Sains. (Vol. 1. pp.154-158). Bandung: Institut Teknologi Bandung.

Rebell, M. A., & Hunter, M. A. (2004). ‘Highly Qualified’ Teachers: Pretense or Legal Requirement?. Phi Delta Kappa, 85(9), 690-696. https://10.1177/003172170408500910

United State Agency for International Development (2013). Teacher education and professional development in Indonesia: A gap analysis. Indonesia: Evans, D., Tate, S., Navarro, R., and Nicolls, M

Smith, D.C. (1999). Changing our teaching: The role of pedagogical content knowledge in elementary science. In J. Gess-Newsome and N. G. Lederman (Ed.), Examining Pedagogical Content Knowledge (pp. 163-198). Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publisher.

Sousa, V. D. & Rojjanasrirat, W. (2010). Translation, adaptation, and validation of instruments or scales for use in cross-cultural health care research: A clear and user-friendly guideline. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 17. (2), 268-274.

Sumintono, B., Said, H., & Mislan, N. (2012). Constraints and improvement: A case study of the Indonesia’s international standard school in improving its capacity building. Journal of Education and Learning, 6(1), 22-31. https://: 10.11591/edulearn.v6i1.187

Sugiarti, A. (2012). The Development of Achievable and Quality Education. Proceedings of ISQAE 2012: In Djaali, M.R. Luddin, S. Siraj, M.B. Ali, Y. Supriyati, Emzir, W.Rahayu, Y. Sastrawijaya, and E. Boeriswati (Ed.), The 1st International Seminar on Quality and Affordable Education. (Vol. 1. pp. 75-96). Jakarta: Universitas Negeri Jakarta.

Thair, M. & Treagust, D. F (1999). A review of teacher development reforms in Indonesian secondary science: The effectiveness of practical working in biology. Research in Education, Vol. 27(4), 581-597.

UNESCO (2006). Preparation, recruitment, and retention of teachers. Paris, France: Cooper, J.M & Alvarado, A.

Wardani, S. (2008). Pengembangan ketrampilan proses sains dalam pembelajaran kromatografi lapis tipis melalui praktikum skala mikro [Developing Science Process Skill in Teaching and Learning Thin Layer Chromatography through Micro Laboratory]. Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan Kimia, 2 (2), 317-322.

Wei, R.C. & Pecheone, R. L. (2010). Assessment for learning in preservice teacher education: Performance-based assessments. In M. M. Kennedy (Ed.), Teacher assessment and the quest for teacher quality: A handbook (pp. 69-132) San Francicco CA: Jossey Bass.

Wiyanto, Sopyan, A., Nugroho, & Wibowo, S.W.A. (2006). Potret pembelajaran sains di SMP dan SMA [The View of Science Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools]. Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika Indonesia, 4(2), 63-66.


Vol. 2 Iss. 3

Didactic proposal to overcome the difficulties in the learning of Area and Volume in Spanish Primary Education students

Ignacio Rieiro-Marín

Paloma Ocaña Aranda

Melody García-Moya

Raquel Fernández-Cézar

Download: 43, size: 0, date: 10.May.2021

Abstract: This work presents a didactic proposal for the learning and measure of surface area and body volume. This proposal is framed in the Anthropological Theory of the Didactic (ATD), based on the recognized errors in the learning of these magnitudes and considering their connection with the typified learning difficulties or epistemological obstacles. The proposal was developed as a didactic sequence, including the tasks from didactic situations (as considered by Brousseau) and with a cross-curricular perspective in relation to the social-systemic structure (ATD), without restricting them in any didactic unit. The praxeology was structured in accordance with the approaches of the ATD, and the didactic methodology was based on the definition of the errors, which followed the phases of development of the usual models in the learning of Geometry.  These phases were defined under a generic framework influenced by the developed Van Hiele model for the learning of Geometry. The tasks that composed the didactic sequences were created “ad-hoc” or extracted from adequate sources throughout the Spanish curriculum of Primary Education. The proposal was designed to be applied in the 5th Primary Education grade. The collection of evidences on the students learning regarding the area and the volume after the implementation of the proposal constitutes the natural next step of this project.

Keywords: Anthropological Theory of the Didactic,Theory of Didactic Situations; Errors;Learning difficulties; Area; Volume; Primary Education.

Please Cite: Rieiro-Marín, I., Ocaña Aranda, P. O., García-Moya, M., & Fernández-Cézar, R. (2019). Didactic proposal to overcome the difficulties in the learning of Area and Volume in Spanish Primary Education students. Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2(3), 151-178. DOI:   


Artigue, M. (2014). Potentialities and limitations of the theory of didactic situations for addressing the teaching and learning of mathematics at university level. Research in Mathematics Education, 16(2), 135-138.

Bachellard, G. (2000). La formación del espíritu científico. Contribución a un psicoanálisis del conocimiento objetivo [The formation of the scientific spirit. Contribution to psychoanalysis of objective knowledge]. México, México: Siglo XXI editores, S.A.

Bachellard, G. (2004). Estudios [Studies]. Bilbao, España: Amorrortu Editores.

Brousseau, G. (July 1976). Les obstacles épistémologiques et les problems en mathématiques problems [Epistemological barriers and problems in mathematics]. En J. Vanhamme & W. Vanhamme (Eds.), La problématique l'enseignement des mathématiques [The problem and the teaching of mathematics]. Simposio llevado a cabo en el XXVIII Commission for the Study and Improvement of Mathematics Teaching, Louvain la Neuve, Bélgica.

Brousseau, G. (1980). Problèmes de l’enseignement des décimaux [Problems of teaching decimals]. Recherches en Didactique des Mathématiques, 1(1), 11-59.

Brousseau, G. (1981). Problèmes de didactique des décimaux [Problems of didactics of decimals]. Recherches en Didactique des Mathématiques, 2(1), 37-127.

Brousseau, G. (1983). Les obstacles épistémologiques et les problemes en mathematiques [Epistemological  obstacles and problems in mathematics]. Recherches en Didactique des Mathematiques, 4(2), 165-198.

Brousseau, G. (1986). Fondements et méthodes de la didactique des mathematiques [Foundations and methods of mathematics didactics]. Recherches en Didactique des Mathématiques, 7(2), 33-115.

Brousseau, G. (1989a). Les obstacles épistémologiques et la didactique des mathématiques [Epistemological obstacles and the didactics of mathematics]. En N, Bednarz & C, Garnier (Eds), Construction des saviors. Obstacles et conflits [Building Knowledge. Obstacles and Conflicts](pp.41-63). Montreal, Canada: CIRADE Les 'editions Arc Agency Inc.

Brousseau, G. (1989b). Obstacles épistémologiques, conflits socio-cognitifs et ingenierie didactique [Epistemological obstacles, socio-cognitive con flicts and didacticengineering]. En N. Bednarz & C. Garnier (Eds.), Construction des savoirs. Obstacles et conflits [Building Knowledge. Obstacles and Conflicts] (pp. 277-285). Montreal, Canada: CIRADE Les 'editions Arc Agency Inc.

Brousseau, G. (July 1996). L’Enseignantdans la Theorie des Situations Didactiques 1. Structure et fonctionnement du systèmedidactique [The Teacher in the Theory of Educational Situations 1. Structure and functioning of the didactic system]. In R. Noirfalise & M.J, Perrin-Gloriam (Eds.). Actes de la VIII° Ecoled’été dedidactique des mathématiques, IREM de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

Brousseau, G. (October - November1999). Educación y Didáctica de las matemáticas [Education and Mathematics Didactics]. V Congreso Nacional de Investigación Educativa. Aguas calientes, Mexico.

Brousseau, G. (2000). Educación y didáctica de las matemáticas [Education and didactics of mathematics]. Educación Matemática, 12(1), 5-38.

Brousseau, G. (2002). Theory of didactical situations in mathematics: didactique des mathematiques, 1970-1990 [Theory of didactical situations in mathematics: didactics of mathematics, 1970-1990]. Boston, United Kingdom: Kluwer academic publishers.

Brousseau, G. (2007). Iniciación al estudio de la teoría de las situaciones didácticas [Introduction to the study of the theory of didactic situation]. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Zorzal.

Cabello Pardos, A.B., Rodriguez Cartagena, Mª. I., Garbayo Moreno, M.M., & Hidalgo Herrero, M. (2014). Dificultades, conflictos, errores y obstáculos epistemológicos en la identificación visual del resto de la división con números decimals [Difficulties, conflicts, errors and obstacles epistemological in the visual identification of the rest of the division with decimal numbers]. Épsilon, 31(87), 55-70.

Camacho Machín, M., García Déniz, M., Hernández Domínguez, J., Noda Herrera, Mª. A., & Socas Robaina, M. M. (2003). La Medida en la Educación Primaria [Measurement in Primary Education]. In M.M, Socas Robaina, (Coord). Materriales curriculares. Colección Cuadernos de Aula [Curricular materials Classroom Notebooks Collection].La Laguna, Canarias: Consejería de Educación Cultura y Deportes del Gobierno de Canarias.

Chamorro, C., & Belmonte, J.M. (1988). El problema de la medida. Didáctica de las magnitudes lineales [The measurement problem. Didactics of linear magnitudes]. Madrid, Spain: Editorial Síntesis S.A.

Chevallard, Y. (1997). La transposición didáctica, del saber sabio al saber enseñado [The didactic transposition, of knowledge wise to the knowledge taught]. Buenos Aires, Argentina: AIQUE Grupo Editor.

Chevallard, Y., Bosch, M., & Gascón, J. (1997). Estudiar matemáticas.  El eslabón perdido entre la Enseñanza y el Aprendizaje [To study math. The missing link between Teaching and Learning].Barcelona, Spain: Horsori.

Chevallard, Y., Bosch, M., & Kim, S. (February 2015). What is a theory according to the anthropological theory of the didactic? CERME 9 - Ninth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education, Czech Republic, Prague.

Corberán Salvador, S., Gutiérrez Rodríguez, Á., Huerta Palau, M.P., Jaime Pastor, A., Bautista Margarit Garrigues, J., Peñas Pascual, J. A., & Ruiz Pérez, E. (1994). Diseño y evaluación de una propuesta curricular de aprendizaje de la geometría en enseñanza secundaria basada en el modelo de razonamiento de Van-Hiele [Design and evaluation of a curricular proposal for learning geometry in secondar yeducation based on the Van-Hiele reasoning model]. Madrid, Spain: Centro de publicaciones del Ministerio de Educación y ciencia.

Crowley, M.L. (1987). The Van Hiele Model of the Development of Geometry Thought. Learning and Teaching Geometry K-12, 1, 1-16.

D'Amore, B., & Fandiño Pinilla, M. I. (2007). Relaciones entre área y perímetro: convicciones de maestros y de estudiantes [Relationsbetweenarea and perimeter: convictions of teachers and students]. Revista latinoamericana de investigación en matemática educativa, 10(1), 39-68.

Del Olmo, M. A., Moreno, M. F., & Gil, F. (1989). Superficie y volumen, ¿algo más que el trabajo con fórmulas? [Surface and volume, something more than working with formulas?]. Madrid, Spain: Editorial Síntesis S. A.

Di Blasi Regner, M., Espro, F., Lois, A., & Milevicich, L., (December 2003). Dificultades y Errores: un estudio de caso [Difficulties and Errors: a case study]. Comunicación breve presentada en el II Congreso Internacional de Matemática Aplicada a la Ingeniería y Enseñanza de la Matemática en Ingeniería, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Díez, Á., Cañadas, M.C., Picado, M., Rico, L., & Castro, E. (2016). Magnitudes y su medida en el currículo de primaria en España (1945-2013) [Magnitudes and their measurement in the primary curriculum in Spain (1945-2013)]. Revista de Currículum y Formación de Profesorado, 20(1), 341-363.

Engler, A., Gregorini, M.I., Müller, D., Vrancken, S., & Hecklein, M. (2004). Los errores en el aprendizaje de matemática [Mistakes in learning mathematics]. Premisa, 6(23), 23-32.

Engler, A., Gregorini, M. I., Müller, D., & Vrancken, S. (2006).  Los errores en el aprendizaje de la matemática [Errors in learning mathematics].Premisa, 23, 23-32.

Fouz, F. (2005). Modelo de Van Hiele para la didáctica de la Geometría [Van Hiele model for the teaching of Geometry]. In R. Ibáñez & M. Macho. (Ed.), Un paseo por la Geometría (2004-2005) [A walk through Geometry (2004-2005)] (pp. 67-82). Bilbao, España: UPV-EHU.

Font, V. (2003). Matemáticas y cosas. Una mirada desde la Educación Matemática [Mathematics and things. A look from Mathematics Education]. Boletín de la Asociación Matemática Venezolana, 10(2), 249-279.

Freudenthal, H. (1983). Didactical Phenomenology of MathematicalStructures. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Reidel Publishing Company.

Godino, J.D. (2004). Didáctica de la matemática para maestros [Didactics of mathematics for teachers]. Granada, Spain: Publicación realizada en el marco del Proyecto de Investigación y Desarrollo del Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología y Fondos FEDER, BSO2002-02452.

Godino, J.D., Batanero, C., & Roa, R. (2002). Medida de magnitudes y su Didáctica para Maestros [Measurement of magnitudes and its Didactics for Teachers].Granada, Spain: Publicación realizada en el marco del Proyecto de Investigación y Desarrollo del Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología, BSO2002-02452.

Heinze, A. (2005). Mistake-handling activities in the mathematics classroom. In, H. L, Chick & J. L, Vincent (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (pp. 105-112). Melbourne, Australia: PME.

Jaime, A., & Gutiérrez, A. (July-August 1994). A model of test design to assess the Van Hiele levels. In J. da Ponte & J. Matos (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. PME-XVIII, Lisboa, Portugal.

Ley Orgánica 2/2006, de 3 de mayo, de Educación [Organic Law 2/2006, of May 3, on Education].

Ley Orgánica 8/2013, de 9 de diciembre, para la mejora de la calidad educativa [Organic Law 8/2013, of December 9, for the improvement of the quality of education].

Lovell, K. (1986). Desarrollo de los conceptos básicos matemáticos y científicos en los niños [Development of mathematical and scientific basic concepts in children]. Madrid, Spain: Ediciones Morata S.A.

Martínez, A., & Rieiro Marín, I. (1993). La medida y la magnitude [The Measure and the Magnitude].Madrid, Spain: Granada, D.L. 

Özerem, A. (2012). Misconceptions in geometry and suggested Solutions for seventh grade students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 55, 720-729.

Piaget, J., Inhelder, B., & Szeminska, A. (1960). The Child's Conception of Geometry. New York, USA: Basic Books, Inc. Editores.

Radatz, H. (1980). Students’ errors in the Mathematical Learning Process: A Survey. For the Learning of Mathematics, 1(1), 16-20.

Rico, L. (1995). Errores y dificultadesen el aprendizaje de las Matemáticas [Errors and difficulties in learning Mathematics]. In J. Kilpatrick., J. Gómez & L. Rico. (Eds), Errores en el aprendizaje de la Matemática [Errors in the learning of Mathematics] (pp. 69 – 108). Mexico, Mexico: Grupo Editorial Iberoamérica.

Ruston, N. (2014). Common errors in Mathematics. Research Matters, 1, 8-18.

Tobón, T. S., Prieto, P. H. J., & Fraile, G. J. A. (2010). Secuencias didácticas. Aprendizaje y Evaluación de Competencias [Didactic Sequences. Learning and Evaluation]. Mexico: Pearson- Prentice Hall.

Trigueros, M. (November 2016). Tendiendo Puentes Entre Teorias: ¿Qué Puede Lograrse? [Tending Bridges Between Theories: What Can Be Achieved? = Building Bridges between Theories: What Can Be Achieved?]. In M.B. Wood., E. E. Turner., M. Civil & J.A. Eli (Eds). Proceedings of the 38th annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education. Tucson, AZ: The University of Arizona.

Van Hiele, P.M. (1986). Structure and insign. A theory of Mathematics Education. London, UK: Academic Press.

Vojkuvkova, I., (May-June 2012). The Van Hiele Model of Geometric Thinking. In J. Safrankova & J. Pavlu. (Eds), WDS'12 Proceedings of Contributed Papers: Part I- Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Matfyzpress, Prague.

Wagman, H. G. (1982). The Child´s Conception of Area Measure. In M.K. Rosskopt. (Ed), Children´s Mathematical Concepts. Six Piagetian studies in mathematics education (pp.71-110). New York, USA: Teacher Collage Press.

Zabala, A. (1998). La Práctica Educativa. Cómo enseñar [The Educational Practice How to teach]. Barcelona: Editorial Graó.
Vol. 2 Iss. 3

Science Education under a Totalitarian Theocracy: Analyzing the ISIS Primary Curriculum

Patrice Potvin, Marianne Bissonnette, Chirine Chamsine, Marie-Hélène Bruyère, Mohamed Amine Mahhou, Olivier Arvisais, Patrick Charland, Stéphane Cyr, & Vivek Venkatesh

Download: 188, size: 0, date: 07.May.2020

Abstract: We conducted an unprecedented analysis of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) primary school science curriculum. The research question focuses on the general scientific quality of the five documents examined, the integration of religious content and the possible tensions between science and religion that result from including such material in the corpus. This content analysis also focuses on the ideological/political agenda that supports its content and structure. Conclusions argue that the ISIS science curriculum appears to be committed to an absolutist/theocratic ideological program that, among other things, promotes a very inadequate concept of scientific activity and content. Recommendations about secularization and the reconstruction of post-ISIS education systems are formulated.

Keywords: Curriculum; Science; Religion; ISIS.

Please Cite: Potvin, P., Bissonnette, M., Chamsine, C., Bruyère, M.-H., Mahhou, M. A., Arvisais, O., Charland, P., Cyr, S., & Venkatesh, V. (2019). Science Education under a Totalitarian Theocracy: Analyzing the ISIS Primary Curriculum. Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2(3), 179-200. DOI:


al-Tamimi, A. (2015). The Evolution in Islamic State Administration. The Documentary Evidence. Perspectives on Terrorism, 9(4), 117-129.

Aldahmash, A. H., Mansour, N. S., Alshamrani, S. M., & Almohi, S. (2016). An Analysis of Activities in Saudi Arabian Middle School Science Textbooks and Workbooks for the Inclusion of Essential Features of Inquiry. Research in science education, 46(6), 879-900. doi:10.1007/s11165-015-9485-7

Alters, B. J., & Alters, S. M. (2001). Defending Evolution. A Guide to the Creation/Evolution Controversy. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Anonymous. (2015a). Al-‘Ulûlm lil- šaff al-awwal al-ibtidâ’î, al-fašl al-dirâsî al-awwal [Sciences for the First Beginner Grade, the First Academic Semester], primary printing (n.l.:, 1437/2015).

Anonymous. (2015b). Al-‘Ulûlm lil- šaff al-ḫâmis al-ibtidâ’î, al-fašl al-dirâsî al-awwal [Sciences for the Fifth Beginner Grade, the First Academic Semester], primary printing (n.l.:, 1437/2015).

Anonymous. (2015c). Al-‘Ulûlm lil- šaff al-thânî al-ibtidâ’î, al-fašl al-dirâsî al-awwal [Sciences for the Second Beginner Grade], primary printing (n.l.:, 1437/2015).

Anonymous. (2015d). Al-‘Ulûlm lil- šaff ar-râbi‘ al-ibtidâ’î, al-fašl al-dirâsî al-awwal [Sciences for the Fourth Beginner Grade, the First Academic Semester], primary printing (n.l.:, 1437/2015).

Anonymous. (2015e). Al-‘Ulûlm lil- šaff ath-thâlith al-ibtidâ’î, al-fašl al-dirâsî al-awwal [Sciences for the Third Beginner Grade, the First Academic Semester], primary printing (n.l.:, 1437/2015).

Arvisais, O., & Guidère, M. (2018a). The Doctrine of the Islamic State Through Its Textbooks. Manuscript sumbitted for publication.

Arvisais, O., & Guidère, M. (2018b). Education in Conflict: How Islamic State Established Its Curriculum. Manuscript sumbitted for publication.

Asghar, A., Hameed, S., & Farahani, N. K. (2014). Evolution in Biology Textbooks: A Comparative Analysis of 5 Muslim Countries. Religion and Education, 41(1), 1-15. doi:10.1080/15507394.2014.855081

Astolfi, J.-P., Darot, É., Ginsburger-Vogel, Y., & Toussaint, J. (1997). Mots-clés de la didactique des sciences. Bruxelles: DeBoeck-Université.

Bachelard, G. (1967). La formation de l'esprit scientifique. Paris: Librairie Vrin.

Berman, E., & Shapiro, J. N. (2015). Why ISIL will fail on its own. Politico.

Bloom, B. J. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: the classification of educational goals (1st ed.). Harlow, England: Longman Group.

Boilevin, J.-M. (2005). Enseigner la physique par situation problème ou par problème ouvert. Aster, 40, 13-37. doi:10.4267/2042/8854

Boorstin, D. J. (1983). The discoverers. New-York: Vintage Books.

Boujaoude, S., Asghar, A., Wiles, J. R., Jaber, L., Sarieddine, D., & Alters, B. (2011). Biology Professors’ and Teachers’ Positions Regarding Biological Evolution and Evolution Education in a Middle Eastern Society. International Journal of Science Education, 33(7), 979-1000. doi:10.1080/09500693.2010.489124

Carr, P., & Thésée, G. (2009). Beyond the conflict of religion and science. Is there a place for an ethical epistemology in education? In M. Schleifer & V. Talwar (Eds.), Science and religion in education (pp. 245-255). Calgary: Detseling Enterprises.

Dagher, Z. R., & Boujaoude, S. (2011). Science education in Arab states: bright future or status quo? Studies in science education, 47(1), 73-101. doi:10.1080/03057267.2011.549622

Delhaye, C. (2014). Discours scientifique et discours religieux à propos de l'origine des espèces vivantes dans les manuels scolaires du secondaire en Grèce. [Scientific and Religious Discourses about the Origin of Living Species in Secondary School Textbooks in Greece]. Education et sociétés, 33(1), 47-62. doi:10.3917/es.033.0047

Duit, R., Treagust, D. F., & Widodo, A. (2008). Teaching science for conceptual change: theory and practice. In S. Vosniadou (Ed.), International handbook of conceptual change (pp. 629-646). New-York: Routledge.

El-Mestari, D. (2011). Le discours religieux des manuels scolaires algériens de l'éducation islamique dans le cycle secondaire. Tréma, 35-36, 70-80.

Freidrich, C., & Brzeziński, Z. (1956). Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy. New-York: Harper & Row.

Guessoum, N. (2010). Islam's Quantum Question: Reconciling Muslim Tradition and Modern Science. London / New-York: I.B. Tauris.

Gueudet, G., Pepin, B., & Trouche, L. (2016). Manuels scolaires et ressources numériques: vers de nouvelles conceptualisations. Revista de Educação Matemática e Tecnológica Iberoamericana, 6(3).

Guidère, M. (2017). L'État islamique en 100 questions. Paris: Talandier.

Kwong, J. (1985). Changing Political Culture and Changing Curriculum: an analysis of language textbooks in the People's Republic of China. Comparative Education, 21(2), 197-208. doi:10.1080/0305006850210207

Mahner, M., & Bunge, M. (1996). Is religious education compatible with science education? Science and Education, 5(2), 101-123. doi:10.1007/bf00428612

Mansour, N. (2010). Science teachers’ interpretations of Islamic culture related to science education versus the Islamic epistemology and ontology of science. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 5(1), 127-140. doi:10.1007/s11422-009-9214-5

Olidort, J. (2016). Inside the Caliphate's classroom. Textbooks, guidance literature, and Indoctrination of the Islamic State. Retrieved from Washington, DC:

Pinker, S. (2018). Enlightenment now. The case of reason, science, humanism, and progress. New-York, Viking Press.

Poincarré, H. (1902). La science et l'hypothèse. Paris: Flammarion.

Popper, K. R. (1995). La logique de la découverte scientifique. Paris: Éditions Payot.

Potvin, P., & Charland, P. (2009). The implications of two competing approaches to education and their consequences on the way to tackle science/religion issues in science classes. In M. Schleifer & V. Talwar (Eds.), Science and religion in education (pp. 227-243). Calgary: Detseling Enterprises.

Reiss, M. J. (2007). Imagining the World: The Significance of Religious Worldviews for Science Education. In M. R. Matthews (Ed.), Science, Worldviews and Education. Dordrecht: Srpinger.

Russell, B. (1935). Religion and science. New-York: Oxford University Press.

Sabra, A. I. (1987). The Appropriation and Subsequent Naturalization of Greek Science in Medieval Islam: A Preliminary Statement. History of Science, 25(3), 223-243. doi:10.1177/007327538702500301

Shtulman, A., & Harrington, K. (2015). Tensions between science and intuition across the lifespan. Topics in cognitive science, 8(2016), 119-137. doi:10.1111/tops.12174

Stern, J., & Berger, J. M. (2015). ISIS: The state of terror (Vol. 7). London, UK: William Collins.

Strathern, P. (1997). Kant, je connais! Paris: Mallard Éditions.

Talanquer, V. (2006). Commonsense Chemistry: A Model for Understanding Students' Alternative Conceptions. Journal of Chemical Education, 83(5), 811. doi:10.1021/ed083p811

Taşkın, Ö. (2014). An exploratory examination of Islamic values in science education: Islamization of science teaching and learning via constructivism. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 9(4), 855-875. doi:10.1007/s11422-013-9553-0

Thouin, M. (2006). Résoudre des problèmes scientifiques et technologiques au préscolaire et au primaire. Québec: Multimondes.

Torrel, J.-P. (2015). Initiation à Saint Thomas d'Aquin: Éditions du Cerf.

UNESCO. (2018). Revive the spirit of Mosul. Retrieved on december 17 (2018) from

Valverde, G. A., Bianchi, L. J., Wolfe, R. G., & Houang, R. T. (2002). According to the book. Using TIMSS to investigate the translation of policy into practice through the world of textbooks: Kluwer Academic Publishing.

Vosniadou, S. (2008). International handbook of research on conceptual change. New York: Routledge.
Vol. 2 Iss. 3

Women Missing in STEM Careers: A Critical Review through the Gender Lens

Shamnaz Arifin Mim

Download: 235, size: 0, date: 06.Jan.2020

Abstract: Although the number of female science students has increased at secondary level in many countries since 1990, this has not translated into pursuing a STEM education at tertiary level and not even into STEM jobs. It is thus important to analyze this issue of female participation in STEM disciplines, since their inclusion would empower them by improving the economy, health, and infrastructure worldwide and help to fight poverty internationally with technological and scientific interventions. This narrative review article aims to analyze the reasons behind female underrepresentation in STEM careers using the “feminist research methodological” approach. Underlying the conceptualization of gendering science, two specific concepts, gender role and empowerment, have been used. Here I have analyzed the educational, attitudinal, socio-cultural, and socio-economic aspects of why there are so few women in STEM careers. This analysis introduces some important concerns that can be focused on during policy implication to ensure gender equality in STEM careers.  This article highlights the socialization process of young students (especially girls), who are expected to perform their stereotyped gender roles consciously or subconsciously both in the family and educational settings. These gendered ideologies are clearly interlinked to the career they become interested or influenced in. The analysis reflects and recommends that subject domains and job sectors should be gender neutral where life experiences and interests of individuals should be emphasized. Such important concerns raised in this article would help educators in policy implication to ensure gender equality in STEM careers.

Keywords: Gender role, Science Careers, STEM, Girls’ empowerment

Please Cite: Mim, S. A. (2019). Women Missing in STEM Careers: A Critical Review through the Gender Lens. Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2(2), 59-70. DOI:           


Agarwal, B. (1997). “Bargaining” and Gender Relations: Within and Beyond the Household, Feminist Economics, 3(1), 1-51.

Ali, M. S. & Awan, A.S. (2013). Attitude Towards Science and Its Relationship with Students’ Achievement in Science, Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 4(10), 707-718. Retrieved from

Allgeier, E. R. & McCormick, N. (1983). The Intimate Relationship between Gender Roles and Sexuality. In E.R. Allgeier, & N. McCormick (Eds.), Changing Boundaries: Gender Roles and Sexual Behavior (pp. 1-15). Mayfield Publishing Company. 

Archer, L. et al. (2013). Adolescent Boys’ Science Aspirations: Masculinity, Capital and Power. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51(1), 1-30. Retrieved from'_science_aspirations_Masculinity_capital_and_power

Blickenstaff, J. C. (2005). Women and Science Careers: Leaky Pipeline or Gender Filter? Gender and Education, 17(4), 369-386. Retrieved from

Brainard, S.G. & Carlin, L. (1998). A six-year Longitudinal Study of Undergraduate Women in Engineering and Science. Journal of Engineering Education, 87(4), 17-27.

Connell, R. W. (1999). The Social Organization of Masculinity. In R.W. Connell (Ed.), Masculinities (pp. 67-81). Berkeley: University of California Press. Retrieved from

Enloe, C. (2014). Women’s labour is Never Cheap: Gendering Global Blue Jeans and Bankers. In C. Enloe (Ed.), Bananas, Beaches and Bases. Making Feminist Sense of International Politics (pp. 250-304). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Ferrari, R. (2015). Writing Narrative Style Literature Review. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/Brac/Downloads/2047480615z2e000000000329.pdf

Girls inc. (2014). Girls Inc. Operation SMART: Science, Math and Relevant Technology. Retrieved from

Herz, B. K. & Sperling, G. B. (2004). What Works in Girls’ Education: Evidence and Policies from the Developing World, Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved from

Hill, C., Corbett, C. & Andresse, S.R. (2010). Why so few? Women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics, AAUW, Washington, DC. Retrieved from

Kabreer, N. (2010). Voice, Agency and the Sounds of Silence: A Comment on Jane L. Parpart’s Paper. Working Paper No. 297. Michigan State University, 206 International Center, East Lansing, MI 48824-1035.

Kabeer, N. (2005). Gender equality and women’s empowerment: A critical analysis of the third millennium development goal 1. Gender & Development, 13(1), 13-24. Retrieved from

Kelly, A. (1985). The Construction of Masculine Science, British Council of Sociology of Education, 6(2), 133-154. Retrieved from

van de Werfhorst, H. G. et al. (2010). ‘Social Class, Ability and Choice of Subject in Secondary and Tertiary Education in Britain’, British Educational Research Journal 29 (1), 41-62. Retrieved from

Miller, P. H. et al. (2006). Gender Differences in High-school Students’ Views about Science. International Journal of Science Education, 28(4), 363-381. Retrieved from

Mim, S. A. (2015) ‘Can Women Science Teachers Be Role Models? Challenging Gender Stereotypes of Science and Masculinity’, MA thesis, International Institute of Social Studies (ISS), Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Hague, Netherlands. Accessed 12 June 2016

Nasr, A. R. & Soltani, A. (2011). Attitude towards Biology and Its Effects on Student’s Achievement.  International Journal of Biology, 3(4), 100-104. Retrieved from

Osborne, J. et al. (2003). Attitude towards Science: A Review of the Literature and its implications, International Journal of Science Education, 25(9), 1049-1079. Retrieved from

Shapiro, J.R. & Williams, A.M. (2011). The Role of Stereotype Threats in Undermining Girls’ and Women’s Performance and Interest in STEM, Feminist Forum: Sex Roles, 66,175-183. Retrieved from

Sonnert, G. & Holton, G. (1995). Who Succeeds in Science? New Brunswick, NJ, Rutgers University Press.

Steinke, J. (1997). A Portrait of a Woman as a Scientist: Breaking Down Barriers Created by Gender-role Stereotypes, Public Understand Sci. 6, 409-428.

Tai, R. H. & Sadler, P. M. (2011). Gender Differences in Introductory Undergraduate Physics Performance: University Physics Versus College Physics in The USA, International Journal of Science Education, 23(10), 1017-1037.

TRIMUNC (2015). Educating Girls in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM). The Triangle Model United Nations Conference for Middle School Students. Retrieved from

UNESCO. (2007). Science, Technology and Gender: An International Report. Science and Technology for Development Series, UNESCO Publishing. Retrieved from

Walford, G. (1981). Tracking Down Sexism in Physics Textbooks. Physics Education, 16, 261-265. Retrieved from

Warrington, M. & Younger, M. (2000). The Other Side of the Gender Gap, Gender and Education, 12(4): 493-508. Retrieved from

Weinburgh, M. (1995). Gender differences in Student Attitude toward Science: A meta-analysis of the literature from 1970 to 1991, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 32(4), 387-398. Retrieved from

Wickramasinghe, M. (2010). Feminist Research Methodology: Making meanings of meaning-making, London and New York: Routledge.

Whitelegg, L. (2001). Girls in Science Education: of Rice and Fruit Trees. In M. Lederman & I. Bartsch (Eds.), The Gender and Science Reader (pp. 373-382). New York, Routledge.


Vol. 2 Iss. 2

How Preservice Elementary Teachers Develop Their Personal Philosophies About Science Teaching: The Role of Informal Science Approaches

Angela Skayia, Lucy Avraamidou, &Maria Evagorou

Download: 187, size: 0, date: 06.Jan.2020

Abstract: The purpose of this case study was to explore how (if in any way) three informal science approaches as part of a teacher preparation program could shape preservice teachers’ personal philosophies of science teaching and learning. Data were collected in a period of two academic semesters in the context of an elementary methods course through the following sources: science autobiographies, personal philosophies about science teaching, drawings about their most memorable and least memorable experiences of science, three reflective journals about the three informal science experiences (i.e., working with scientists, field, science festival), lesson plans, responses to final exam questions, observations, and semi-structured interviews. The participants were 16 preservice elementary teachers, seven males and nine females. Open coding techniques were used to analyse the data in order to construct categories and subcategories and eventually to identify emerging themes. The outcomes of the analysis showed that the inclusion of informal learning in teachers’ preparation has the potential to support preservice teachers’ in reconstructing their ideas about science and science teaching in ways that are aligned with reform efforts emphasizing student engagement, working with scientists, and utilizing out-of-school spaces for learning.

Keywords: Informal science; Teacher education; Science education

Please Cite: Skayia A., Avraamidou, L., & Evagorou, M. (2019). How preservice teachers develop their personal philosophies about science teaching: The role of informal science approaches. Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2(2), 71-84.



Anderson, D., Lawson, B., Mayer-Smith, J. (2006). Investigating the Impact of a Practicum Experience in an Aquarium on Pre-service Teacher. Teacher Education, 17(4), 341-353.

Anderson, D., Lucas, K.B., Ginnis, I.S. (2003). Theoretical Perspectives on Learning in an Informal Setting. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 40(2), 177-199.

Avraamidou, L. (2014). Developing a reform-minded science teaching identity: The role of informal science environments. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 25(7), 823-843.

Avraamidou, L. (2014). Reconceptualizing Elementary Teacher Preparation: A case for informal science education. International Journal of Science Education, 37(1), 108-135.

Avraamidou, L. (2015). Stories of self and science: preservice elementary teachers’ identity work through time and across contexts. Pedagogies: An international Journal, 11(1), 43-62.

Avraamidou, L. (2016). Intersections of life histories and science identities: the stories of three preservice elementary teachers. International Journal of Science Education, 38(5), 861-884.

Avraamidou, L. & Roth, W.-M. (2016). Intersections of formal and informal science. NY: Routledge.

Bevan, B., Dillon, J. (2010). Broadening views of learning: Developing educators for the 21st century through an international research partnership at the Exploratorium and King's College London. The New Educator, 6(3-4), 167-180.

Bevan, B., Dillon, J., Hein, G. E., Macdonald, M., Michalchik, V., Miller, D., Root, D., Kilkenny, L. R., Xanthoudaki, M., Yoon, S. (2010). Making Science Matter: Collaborations Between Informal Science Education Organizations and Schools. Advancement of Informal Science Education, Washington.

Coffey, A., & Atkinson, P. (1996). Making sense of qualitative data: Complementary research strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Education Development Center (2014). STEM Smart Briefs: Connecting Informal and Formal STEM Education. [Online] Available: education [2014, 10/8].

Fallik, O., Rosenfeld, S., Eylon, B. S. (2013). School and out-of-school science: A model for bridging the gab. Studies in Science Education, 49(1), 69-91.

Fenichel, M., Schweingruber, H. A. (2010). Surrounded by Science: Learning in Informal Environments. Washington D.C.: National Academy of Science.

Hofstein, A., Rosenfeld, S. (1996). Bridging the Gap Between Formal and Informal Science Learning, Studies in Science Education, 28(1), 87-112.

Kisiel, J. (2013). Introducing science teachers to science beyond the classroom. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 24(1), 67-91.

Krishnamurthi, A., Rennie, L.J. (2013). Informal Science Learning and Education: Definition and Goals. [Online] Available: [2014, 10/8].

McNally, J., Blake, A., Reid, A. (2009). The informal learning of new teachers in school. Journal of Workplace Learning, 21(4), 322-333.

Melber, L. M., Cox-Petersen, A. M. (2005). Teacher Professional Development and Informal Learning Environments: Investigating Partnerships and Possibilities. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 16(2), 103-120.

Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Murmann, M., Avraamidou, L. (2013). Animals, Emperors, Senses: Exploring a Story-based Learning Design in a Museum Setting. International Journal of Science Education, 4(1), 66-91.

Olson, J.K., Cox-Petersen, A. M., McComas, W.F. (2001). The Inclusion of Informal Environments in Science Teacher Preparation. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 12(3), 155-173..

Rennie, L.J. (2014). Learning science outside of school. In: Abell, S. K., Lederman, N. G. (eds): Handbook of research on science education (pp 120-144). New York: Routledge.

Riedinger, K., Marbach-Ad, G., Mc-Ginnins, J., Hestness, E., Pease, R. (2010). Transforming Elementary Science Teacher Education by Bridging Formal and Informal Course. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 20(1), 51-64.

Stocklmayer, S. M., Rennie, L. J., Gilbert, J. K. (2010). The role of the formal and informal sectors in the provision of effective science education. Studies in Science Education, 46(1), 1-44.

Yin, K. R. (2003a). Case study research: Design and Methods. California: Sage Publications.
Vol. 2 Iss. 2

The Development and Validation of a 21st Century Skills Instrument: Measuring Secondary School Students’ Skills

Alpaslan Sahin, Mirim Kim, & Myeongsun Yoon

Download: 131, size: 0, date: 06.Jan.2020

Abstract: Due to the rapid change in technology and information dissemination, the qualities and skills employers and colleges demand in the 21st century have changed. To help higher education institutions and workforce to identify and measure their prospective students and employees’ skills respectively, we designed an instrument for secondary grade students to self-assess their 21st century skills. After successful piloting, validation of the final instrument was done with 282 high school students from a public high school in Texas. We utilized exploratory factor analysis and investigated construct validity for the instrument using principal axis factoring with Promax rotation and Kaiser normalization. We found that the original 48 items developed for the instrument were loading the four factors as theorized in our model. Finally, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models for four scales were separately investigated. Maximum likelihood estimation method was used for all analyses though Mplus8.2 (Muthén & Muthén, 1998-2017). We came up with 5 factors and 43 items. Researchers, K-12 educators, postsecondary educators, and employers may benefit from the development of this instrument.

Keywords: 21st century skills; Exploratory factor analysis; Instrument development; Principal axis factoring; Confirmatory factor analysis.

Please Cite: Sahin, A., Kim, M., & Yoon, M. (2019). The Development and Validation of a 21st Century Skills Instrument: Measuring Secondary School Students’ Skills. Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2(2), 85-103.



Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., Airasian, P., Cruikshank, K., Mayer, R., Pintrich, P., ... Wittrock, M. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy. New York. Longman Publishing.

Association of American Colleges and Universities. (2007). College learning for the new global century: A report from the National Leadership Council for Liberal Education & America's Promise. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from

Bell, S. (2010). Project-based learning for the 21st century: Skills for the future. The Clearing House83(2), 39–43.

Binkley, M., Erstad, O., Herman, J., Raizen, S., Ripley, M., Miller-Ricci, M., & Rumble, M. (2012). Defining twenty-first century skills. In P. Griffin, B. McGaw, & E. Care (Eds.), Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills (pp. 17–66). New York: Springer.

Bloom, B. S. (Ed.) (1984). Taxonomy of educational objectives (Handbook 1: Cognitive domain). New York: Longman.

Brown, J. D. (2009). Choosing the right type of rotation in PCA and EFA. JALT Testing and Evaluation SIG Newsletter, 13(3), 20–25.

Calvani, A., Cartelli, A., Fini, A., & Ranieri, M. (2009). Models and instruments for assessing digital competence at school. Journal of E-learning and Knowledge Society4(3), 183–193.

Churches, A. (2008). Bloom’s digital taxonomy. Retrieved from

Dede, C. (2010). Comparing frameworks for 21st century skills. In J. A. Bellanca & R. S. Brandt (Eds.), 21st century skills: Rethinking how students learn (pp. 51–76). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

Dron, J., & Anderson, T. (2014). Teaching crowds: Learning and social media. Edmonton, Canada: Athabasca University Press.

Fan, S., & Le, Q. (2011). Developing a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate users’ perception of web-based learning in an Australian university contexts. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, 7(3), 366–379.

Greiff, S., & Kyllonen, P.C. (2016). Contemporary assessment challenges: The measurement of 21st century skills. Applied Measurement in Education, 29(4), 243–244.

Griffin, P., & Care, E. (Eds.). (2015). Assessment and teaching of 21st century skills: Methods and approach. New York: Springer.

International Society for Technology in Education. (2016). ISTE standards for students. Retrieved from

Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity 1. Personnel Psychology28(4), 563–575.

Levy, F., & Murnane, R. J. (2004). The new division of labor: How computers are changing the way we work. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Lombardi, M. M. (2007). Authentic learning for the 21st century: An overview. In D. G. Oblinger (Ed.), Educause Learning Initiative: Advancing learning through IT innovation (pp. 1–12). Retrieved from

Mintz, S. (2014, March 5). Five ways that 21st and 20th century learning will differ: Proficiency, data, science, and more. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from

Mishra, P., & Kereluik, K. (2011). What 21st century learning? A review and a synthesis. In M. Koehler & P. Mishra (Eds.), Proceedings for the 22nd International Conference for the Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education (pp. 3301–3312). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.

National Center on Education and the Economy. (2007). Tough choices or tough times: The report of the new commission on the skills of the American workforce. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from

North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, & Meriti Group. (2003). enGauge® 21st Century Skills: Literacy in the Digital Age.

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2005). The definition and selection of key competencies: Executive summary. Paris, France: OECD.

Osman, K., Soh, T. M. T., & Arsad, N. M. (2010). Development and validation of the Malaysian 21st century skills instrument (M-21CSI) for science students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences9, 599–603.

Pacific Policy Research Center. (2010). 21st century skills for students and teachers. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools. Retrieved from

Partnership for 21st Century Learning. (2009). Results that matter: 21st Century skills and high school reform. Tucson, AZ: Author.

Partnership for 21st Century Learning. (2016). Framework for 21st century learning. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from

Piaget, J. (1950). The psychology of intelligence. Routledge.

Rich, E. (2010). How do you define 21st-century skills? One question. Eleven answers. Education Week, 4(1), 32–35.

Rotherham, A. J., & Willingham, D. T. (2010). “21st-Century” Skills. American Educator17.

Saavedra, A. R., & Opfer, V. D. (2012). Learning 21st-century skills requires 21st-century teaching. Phi Delta Kappan94(2), 8–13.

Saettler, P. (2004). The evolution of American educational technology. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

Schmidt, D. A., Baran, E., Thompson, A. D., Mishra, P., Koehler, M. J., & Shin, T. S. (2009). Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) the development and validation of an assessment instrument for preservice teachers. Journal of Research on Technology in Education42(2), 123–149.

Schneider, S. (1997). Defining environmental literacy. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 12(11), 457.

Silva, E. (2008). Measuring skills for the 21st century (Education Sector Reports). Washington, DC: Education Sector.

Silva, E. (2009). Measuring skills for 21st-century learning. Phi Delta Kappan90(9), 630–634.

Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

Trilling, B. & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times. Retrieved from

Voogt, J., & Roblin, N. P. (2012). A comparative analysis of international frameworks for 21st century competences: Implications for national curriculum policies. Journal of Curriculum Studies44(3), 299–321.
Vol. 2 Iss. 2

Indonesia Vocational High School Science Teachers’ Priorities Regarding 21st Century Learning Skills in Their Science Classrooms

Esty Haryani, William W. Cobern, & Brandy A-S. Pleasants

Download: 749, size: 0, date: 06.Jan.2020

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine vocational high school science teachers’ instructional prioritizing the 21st Century Skills mandated in the Indonesian National Curriculum 2013 revision. The Indonesian government implemented this curriculum in 2017 to support students’ career readiness, which was inadequately addressed in previous curriculum documents. Survey data was obtained from the population of vocational high school science teachers in the city of Pontianak, West Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The study contrasted the prioritizing of 21st Century Skills objectives with previous curriculum objectives, in order to determine if teachers give priority to current curriculum requirements or are still focusing on previous requirements. The study furthermore examined whether teacher demographic data are associated with their teaching priorities. Results indicate teachers do prioritize the 21st Century Learning Skills over previous curriculum objectives. Novice teachers report higher priority on communication skills and male teachers give higher priority to problem solving. Future research includes determining how these priorities translate into classroom practice.

Keywords: 21st Century Learning Skills; Science content; Scientific process; Teaching priority; Quantitative study.

Please Cite: Haryani, E., Cobern, W. W. & Pleasants, B. A-S. (2019). Indonesia Vocational High School Science Teachers’ Priorities Regarding 21st Century Learning Skills in Their Science Classrooms. Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2(2), 105-133.



Ahmad, D. (2014). Understanding the 2013 curriculum of English teaching through the teachers’ and policy makers’ perspectives. International Journal of Enhanced Research in Educational Development, 2, 4. 6-15.

Aikenhead, G. S. (1985). Collective decision making in the social context of science. Science Education, 96, 4. 453-457.

Babbie, E. R. (1990). Survey research methods. 2nd Ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Badley, G. (1986). The teacher as change agent. British Journal of In Service Education, 12, 3. 151-158. doi: 10.1080/0305763860120305

Banner, I, Ryder, J. & Donnelly, J.  (2009, September). The role of teachers’ priorities for science education in the enactment of science curriculum reform. Paper presented at the European Science Education Research Association conference, Istanbul.

Czerniak, C. M. & Lumpe, A. T. (1996). Relation between teacher beliefs and science education reform. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 7(4), 247-266.

Dam, M. Janssen, F. J. J. M. & van Driel, J. H. (2018) Attention to intentions- How to stimulate strong intentions to change. Research in Science Education, 48, 369-387. doi: 10.1007/s11165-016-9572-4.

Dahar, R. W. (1996). Teori-teori belajar. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Darsih, E. (2014). Indonesia EFL teachers’ perception on the implementation of 2013 English curriculum. English Review: Journal of English Education, 2(2), 192-199.

David, J.G. (2018). A study of K-12 teachers’ perceptions of teacher self-efficacy in relation to instruction of 21st century skills. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (AAT 10820891)

Davies, L. M., Newton, L. D., & Newton, D. P. (2017). Creativity as a twenty-first-century competence: An exploratory study of provision and reality. Education. 3-13. doi: 10. 1080/03004279.2017.1385641.

DiBenedetto, C. A. (2015). Teachers’ perceptions of their proficiency and responsibility to teach the knowledge, skills, and dispositions required of high school students to be career ready in the 21st century. Retrieved from: ProQuest Digital Dissertation. (3729140)

di Gropello, E., Kruse, A. & Tandon, P. (2011). Skill for the labor market in Indonesia: Trends in demand, gaps, and supply. Direction in development. World Bank © World Bank. License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.

Dillman, D. A., Smyth, J. D., Christian, L. M. (2014). Internet, phone, mail, and mixed-mode surveys. The Tailored Design Method 4th edition. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Son.

Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS 3rd edition. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publication Inc.

Friis, R. H. & Sellers, T. A. (2009). Epidemiology for public health practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Fullan, M. (2007). The new meaning of educational change 4th ed. New York: Teacher College Press.

Haney, J.J., Czerniak, C. M., & Lumpe, A. T. (1996). Teacher beliefs and intentions regarding the implementation of science education reform strands. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33(9), 971-993.

Happ, D. W. (2013). Results of a survey of 21st century skills of communication,

Collaboration, critical thinking, and creativity. Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 3575592)

Hertzog, M.A. (2008). Consideration in determining sample size for pilot studies. Research in Nursing & Health, 31, 180–191.

Hill, R. (1998). What sample size is “enough” in internet survey research? Interpersonal Computing and Technology Journal for the 21st Century, 6(3-4). Retrieved July 12, 2008, from

Indonesia’s Ministry of Education and Culture Regulation number 21 of 2016: The core standard for elementary and secondary education (Permendikbud no. 21 tahun 2016 tentang standard isi pendidikan dasar dan menengah). Retrieved from:

Indonesia’s Ministry of Education and Culture Regulation number 22 of 2016: The process standards for elementary and secondary education (Permendikbud no. 22 tahun 2016 tentang standard proses pendidikan dasar dan menengah). Retrieved from:

Isaac, S., & Michael, W. B. (1995). Handbook in research and evaluation. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Services.          

Kirk, D. & MacDonald, D. (2001). Teacher voice and ownership of curriculum change. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 33(5), 551-567. doi: 10. 1080/00220270010016874.

Larson, L. C. & Miller, T. N. (2011). 21st century skills: Prepare students for the future. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 47(3), 121-123. doi: 10. 1080/00228958.2011. 10516575.

Lozano, L. M., García-Cueto, E. & Muñiz, J. (2008). Effect of the number of response categories on the reliability and validity of rating scale. Methodology journal, 4, 73-79. doi: 10.1027. 1614-2241.4.2.73

Machali, I. (2014). Kebijakan perubahan kurikulum 2013 dalam menyongsong Indonesia emas tahun 2045. Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, 3, 1. 71-94. 

Mansour, N. (2009). Science teachers’ beliefs and practices: Issues, implications and research agenda. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 4(1). 25-48.

National Research Council. (2011). Assessing 21st century skills: Summary of a workshop. Washington DC: The National Academies Press.

Newton, L. D. (2012). Creativity for a new curriculum. New York: Routledge.

Odger, S., Symons, A., & Mitchell, I. (2000). Differentiating the curriculum through the use of problem solving. Research in Science Education, 30(3), 289-300.

Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers' beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62, 307-332.

 Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2009). A. framework for 21st century learning. Tucson:

AZ: P21. Available at:

Rotherham, A. J., & Willingham, D. (2009). 21st Century skills: the challenges ahead. Educational Leadership, 67(1), 16-21.

Satten, G. A. and Grummer-Strawn, L. (2014). Cross-Sectional Study. Wiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online. Retrieved from:

Schoenfeld, A. H. (2011). Toward professional development for teachers grounded in a theory of decision making. ZDM Mathematics Education, 43,457–469 doi: 10.1007/s11858-011-0307-8

Schoenfeld, A. H. (2015, February). How we think: A theory of human decision-making, with focus on teaching. Paper presented at the 12th International Congress on Mathematical Education pp 229-24, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-12688-3_16

Skourdoumbis, A. (2016). Articulating of teaching practice: A case study of teachers and “general capabilities”. Asia Pacific Education Rev. 17, 545-554. doi: 10.1007/s 12564-016-94607.

Spillane, J. P. (1999). External reform initiatives and teachers’ efforts to reconstruct their practice: the mediating role of teachers’ zones of enactment. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 31(2), 143-175.

Tok, N. K., Tok, S.  & Dolapçıoğlu, S. D. (2014). The perception levels of novice teachers’ problem solving skills. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 412-420.

Trilling, B. & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Wiggins, G., & McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Curriculum and Development



Vol. 2 Iss. 2

STEM Education and Research in a Changing World: Our Social Responsibility

Lucy Avraamidou

Download: 148, size: 0, date: 06.Jan.2020

At the awaking of the third millennium, in the here and now, the world finds itself facing a series of challenges, such as climate change, poverty, inequality, refugee crisis, unemployment, and so on, and so on. These global challenges raise a number of questions for STEM education and research: What should we teach our children? What knowledge and skills will our children need to have in 2050? How can we utilize scientific and technological knowledge to address global challenges? How can we think beyond the here and now in order to prepare ourselves for the future societies? Essentially, two questions are raised for STEM researchers: (a) what is the role of STEM education and research in a constantly changing world? and, (b) How does STEM shape our societies and how are our societies shaped by STEM?

Vol. 2 Iss. 1

Reliability of ACCUPLACER Score in Predicting Success in Quantitative Reasoning Course

Santhosh Mathew, & Upasana Kashyap

Download: 226, size: 0, date: 06.Jan.2020

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the ACCUPLACER placement test score (elementary algebra) and the student success in the quantitative reasoning course at Regis College. Our study points to a weak but significant correlation between the ACCUPLACER placement score and the student success in the quantitative reasoning course. We propose that an in-house placement system based on the unique requirements of the institution will be a much more effective approach to place the students at appropriate levels of instruction.

Keywords: ACCUPLACER; College Placement; Quantitative Reasoning; Freshmen Level Mathematics; Assessment of Student Preparedness

Please Cite: Mathew, S., & Kashyap, U. (2019). Reliability of ACCUPLACER score in predicting success in Quantitative Reasoning Course. Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2(1), 1-7. DOI:             


Anthony, G. (2000). Factors influencing first-year students' success in mathematics. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology 31(1), 3–14.

Armstrong, W. B. (2000). The association among student success in courses, placement test scores, student background data, and instructor grading practices. Community College Journal of Research & Practice, 24 (8), 681– 695.

Belfield, C. R., & Crosta, P. M. (2012). Predicting success in college: The importance of placement tests and high school transcripts (CCRC Working Paper No. 42). New York: Community College Research Center.

Bennett, J., & Briggs W.L. (2014). Using and understanding mathematics: A   Quantitative Reasoning Approach. 6th ed., MA: Pearson.

Bettinger, E. P., & Long, B. (2009). Addressing the needs of under-prepared students in Higher Education: Does college remediation work? Journal of Human Resources, 44(3), 736–771. 

Brase, C. H. & Brase, C.P. (2012). Understandable Statistics: Concepts and Methods (10th edn). Boston: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.

College Board. (2015, March 12). ACCUPLACER. Retrieved from


Elrod, S.L. (2014). Quantitative Reasoning: The Next “Across the Curriculum” Movement, Peer Review 16(3), 4–8.

Greene, J.P. & Forster, G. (2003, September). Public High School Graduation and College Readiness Rates in the United States, (Manhattan Institute, Center for Civic Information, Education Working Paper, No. 3). New York: Manhattan Institute.

Madison, B. L., Linde, C. S., Decker, B. R., Rigsby, E. M., Dingman, S. W., & Stegman,   C. E. (2015). A Study of Placement and Grade Prediction in First College Mathematics Courses. PRIMUS, 25(2), 131-157.

ACCUPLACER Reliability & Validity (2015, May 20). Retrieved from

Mattern, K. D., & Packman, S. (2009). Predictive validity of ACCUPLACER scores for course placement: A meta-analysis (Research Report No. 2009-2). New York, NY: College Board. Retrieved from

Ngo, F., & Kwon, W. W. (2015). Using multiple measures to make math placement decisions: Implications for access and success in community colleges. Research in Higher Education, 56(5), 442-470.

Rueda, N. G., & Sokolowski, C. (2004). Mathematics placement test: Helping students succeed. The Mathematics Educator, 14(2), 27-33.

Scott-Clayton, J. (2012). Do high-stakes placement exams predict college success? (CCRC Working Paper No. 41). New York, NY: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

Sedlacek, W. E. (2004). Beyond the big test: Noncognitive assessment in higher education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Steen, L. (2004). Achieving Quantitative Literacy: an Urgent Challenge for Higher Education. MAA Notes. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America.


Vol. 2 Iss. 1

Framework for the Parallelized Development of Estimation Tasks for Length, Area, Capacity, and Volume in Primary School – A Pilot Study

Dana Farina Weiher

Download: 150, size: 0, date: 06.Jan.2020

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to present a framework for the development of parallelized estimation tasks for the visible measures length, area, capacity, and volume. To investigate if there are differences between the estimation types of task, a written estimation test for 3rd- and 4th-graders was developed. It includes eight different types of task for each measure. The percentage deviation of the estimated value from the real value (the measured size) of 137 students indicates that there are differences between the four measures as well as within the types of task that affect over- and underestimation and the estimation accuracy. Further research could address relations between the estimation of visible measures and the investigation of more characteristics in an estimation task, using a written estimation test that is based on this valid framework.

Keywords: Estimation test; Estimation tasks; Measurement estimation; Parallelized items; Visible measures

Please Cite: Weiher, D. F. (2019). Framework for the Parallelized Development of Estimation Tasks for Length, Area, Capacity, and Volume in Primary School – A Pilot Study. Journal of Research in Science, Mathematics and Technology Education, 2(1), 9-28. DOI:     


Bright, G. W. (1976). Estimation as Part of Learning to Measure. In D. Nelson (Ed.), Measurement in School. Mathematics 1976 Yearbook (pp. 87–104). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Brand, M., Fujiwara, E., Kalbe, E., Steingass, H.-P., Kessler, J., & Markowitsch, H. J. (2003). Cognitive Estimation and Affective Judgments in Alcoholic Korsakoff Patients. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25 (3), 324-334. doi:

D’Aniello, G. E., Castelnuovo, G., & Scarpina, F. (2015). Could Cognitive Estimation Ability Be a Measure of Cognitive Reserve? Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1-4. doi:

Heinze, A., Weiher, D. F., Huang, H.-M., & Ruwisch, S. (2018). Which Estimation Situations are Relevant for a Valid Assessment of Measurement Estimation Skills? Proceedings of the 42nd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (Vol. 1). Umeå, Sweden: PME.

Hildreth, D. J. (1983). The Use of Strategies in Estimating Measurements. Arithmetic Teacher, 30 (5), 50-54.

Hogan, T. P., & Brezinski, K. L. (2003). Quantitative Estimation: One, Two, or Three Abilities? Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 5 (4), 259-280. doi:

Joram, E. (2003). Benchmarks as Tools for Developing Measurement Sense. In D. H. Clements & G. Bright (Eds.), Learning and Teaching Measurement. 2003 Yearbook (pp. 57-67). Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

Joram, E., Subrahmanyam, K., & Gelman, R. (1998). Measurement Estimation: Learning to Map the Route from Number to Quantity and Back. Review of Educational Research, 68(4), 413-449. doi:

MacPherson, S. E., Wagner, G. P., Murphy, P., Bozzali, M., Cipolotti, L., & Shallice, T. (2014). Bringing the Cognitive Estimation Task into the 21st Century: Normative Data on Two New Parallel Forms. PLoS ONE 9(3): e92554. doi:

Nührenbörger, M. (2004). Children’s Measurement Thinking in the Context of Length. In G. Törner, R. Bruder, A. Peter-Koop, N. Neill, H. G. Weigand, & B. Wollring (Eds.) Developments in Mathematics Educations in German-speaking Countries. Selected Papers from the Annual Conference on Didactics of Mathematics. Ludwigsburg 2001. (pp. 95-106).

O’Daffer, P. (1979). A Case and Techniques for Estimation: Estimation Experiences in Elementary School Mathematics – Essential, Not Extra!. The Arithmetic Teacher, 26 (6), 46-51.

Shapiro, S. S., & Wilk, M. B. (1965). An Analysis of Variance Test for Normality (Complete Sample). Biometrika, 52 (3/4), 591-611. doi:

Siegel, A. W., Goldsmith, L. T., & Madson, C. R. (1982). Skill in Estimation Problems of Extent and Numerosity. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 13 (3), 211–232. doi:

Winter, H. (2003). Sachrechnen in der Grundschule. Problematik des Sachrechnens. Funktionen des Sachrechnens. Unterrichtsprojekte. (6th ed.). Frankfurt am Main: Cornelsen Scriptor.


Vol. 2 Iss. 1